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Ancient tribe Chinese - Ancestry and origin

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Where is the origin of the Chinese?

Archeological discoveries prove that the so-called Yangshao Culture already existed on the middle Huang He in the third millennium B.C. According to one list of rulers that has been preserved, the Xia Dynasty is supposed to have ruled from 2,250 to 1,766 B.C. The first Dynasty that is attested both historically and literarily as well as archeologically is the Shang Dynasty, which ruled in the 15th to 11th centuries B.C. Excavations are indicative of a highly developed culture with bronze art and a written language that had more than 2,000 word-symbols (pictographs). The priestly caste had a great influence, the ruler a religious position.
From approximately 1,100 to 249 B.C. the Zhou Dynasty ruled. The state was feudal in nature, surrounded by the territories of vassals, who expanded their power in battles against other tribes on all sides. From the wars of these absolutist individual states, the Qin state emerged as the victor, and their ruler named himself the "First Emperor" in 221 B.C. Under him there began a rigorous unification of administrative practices and the economy, and a border wall was erected in northern China to provide security from outside threats. This tyrannical rule led in 210 B.C. to uprisings, after which the Han Dynasty came to power in 206 B.C. During the Han Dynasty, China became a centralized theocratic state of bureaucrats. Historical and literary studies reached a high degree of sophistication and art became secularized and refined.

Who are the Han Chinese?

Since the term "Chinese" in German (and English) does not clearly distinguish between citizens of the state of China and members of the Han-nationality, which is to say the 'ethnic Chinese', the term 'Han Chinese' has increasingly gained acceptance. In Chinese, clear distinctions are made between the Chinese as citizens of a nation state (Zhongguoren, "Person from the Land in the Middle") and the 'ethnic Chinese' (Hanzuren, or Hanren, "Person of the Han-people"). The Hakka, for their part, represent in the Chinese view a sub-group of the Han Chinese.
Approximately 91.6% of the populace of the People's Republic of China and 98% of the Republic of China (Taiwan) are Han. Alongside the Han Chinese, there are in the People's Republic 55 and in the Republic 12 officially recognized ethnic groups. In addition to these, there are 15–20 ethnic groups, who are not officially recognized as independent ethnicities.
Actually, however, even the Han Chinese are not as homogeneous an ethnic group as is assumed by modern state institutions. The heterogeneity manifests itself, for example, in the various languages within Chinese and in the names for regions and their inhabitants that are older than the Han Dynasty (e.g. Wu or Shu). Other dynasties are also used for onomastic purposes. The southern Chinese named themselves (and still do in other countries in southeast Asia) Tang, and not Han, since their territories were first settled by the Tang from the north and not the Han. The autochthon population either let itself be displaced or assimilated.
Most "overseas Chinese" descend from the Han. The essential cultural elements are the common written language used with dialects that are in part very different from each other and a consciousness of a common history and tradition.

Genetic indigenous peoples by iGENEA

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Discovering a blend of cultural heritage, blending German origins with Jewish and Iberian roots, and the mystery surrounding the Pfeffer name entailed a spiritual and historical journey for me

Embarking on a DNA journey often results in unexpected twists and turns. My journey with iGENEA DNA test centered on my Pfeffer surname was no different - I found twists, surprises, lost connections, and enlightening revelations about my genealogical roots!-----NEXT----!Lifting the Veil off my Pfeffer DNA Map: The Unexpected Turns and Surprises From the moment I received my iGENEA DNA test kit, curiosity bubbled within my stomach. I was about to unwrap the story swirling within my genes, secretly carrying the tales of generation after generation. As I opened the wrapping, I knew this test would give me answers, but also spark new questions about my Pfeffer roots. Once my test was processed, I immediately dove into the results. My surname, Pfeffer, always intrigued me. I was told it was of German origin, but my family lore also whispered tales of far-off lands and diverse roots. The results confirmed what I long suspected – I wasn't solely German. I was a blend, a heady mix of cultures and migrations. The DNA test revealed an ancient Jewish connection, something I never considered. According to iGENEA, around 8% of Germans are of Jewish descent. I fit into that percentage - a discovery that was both surprising and enlightening. This broke open my understanding of my family's past and changed the way I view my surname. Pfeffer wasn't just a name; it was a testament to a rich, interconnected history of diaspora and survival. One intriguing discovery was a connection to the ancient Ashkenazi Jewish community. The Ashkenazim, initially centered in the Holy Roman Empire, later spread to Eastern Europe and further afield. My Pfeffer ancestors might have been part of these migration waves, integrating into new societies while carrying their layered heritage with them. Was my family name originally Pfeffer? Or did it morph into Pfeffer once my ancestors settled in German-speaking nations? While the DNA test couldn't answer this directly, it did give me clues. The most unexpected turn was the presence of a Sephardic heritage. My paternal haplogroup pointed towards Iberian roots, suggesting that some forefathers might have been Jews expelled from Spain during the infamous 1492 Edict of Expulsion. There were much more than just surprises. The iGENEA DNA test allowed me to connect with distant relatives who share parts of my genetic makeup. These connections weren't just about the treasure of familial bonds but also served as tiny puzzle pieces in the vast image of my ancestry. Exploring my Pfeffer surname through iGENEA's DNA test was an enlightening journey full of surprises and unexpected turns. Today, each time I hear or see my surname, I understand it's not just a name - it's a living, breathing chronicle of where I come from and who I am. As I continue researching and connecting the dots, I know more surprises await me, each ready to shed light on the mystery of the incredible Pfeffer lineage.
» Field report from Q. Pfeffer

A Journey to Unravel My Ancestral Roots: The iGENEA DNA Analysis of the Ruther Surname

Ever wondered about the origins and historical implications of your surname? Thanks to an iGENEA DNA test, I managed to trace the fascinating lineage and intricate history of the "Ruther" family name - a tale of ancestry, migration, and ties to Anglo-Saxon tribes.
» Field report from T. Ruther

Exploring the Stansberry Lineage Through iGENEA DNA Test: A Journey Back in Time

Recently, I undertook an iGENEA DNA test to explore my lineage and gained some fascinating insights about the Stansberry surname's origins. My genetic blueprint showed links to various regions across the globe, offering a unique glimpse into the migration and interspersing of the Stansberry lineage over centuries.
» Field report from K. Stansberry

This is how the DNA origin analysis works

A Mucus Sample suffices to get a sample of your DNA. Taking the sample is simple and painless and can be done at home. Send the samples with the envelop included in the sampling kit.

Order test kit
Get test kit
Take samples

at home, simple and painless

Send in samples

with the enclosed envelope

Result

online after approx. 6-8 weeks

Your origin analysis
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